Answer Counting under Guarded TGDs
We study the complexity of answer counting for ontology-mediated queries and for querying under constraints, considering conjunctive queries and unions thereof (UCQs) as the query language and guarded TGDs as the ontology and constraint language, respectively. Our main result is a classification according to whether answer counting is fixed-parameter tractable (FPT), W-equivalent, #W-equivalent, #W-hard, or #A-equivalent, lifting a recent classification for UCQs without ontologies and constraints due to Dell et al. The classification pertains to various structural measures, namely treewidth, contract treewidth, starsize, and linked matching number. Our results rest on the assumption that the arity of relation symbols is bounded by a constant and, in the case of ontology-mediated querying, that all symbols from the ontology and query can occur in the data (so-called full data schema). We also study the meta-problems for the mentioned structural measures, that is, to decide whether a given ontology-mediated query or constraint-query specification is equivalent to one for which the structural measure is bounded.
September 14, 2023
Arboreal Categories: An Axiomatic Theory of Resources
Game comonads provide a categorical syntax-free approach to finite model theory, and their Eilenberg-Moore coalgebras typically encode important combinatorial parameters of structures. In this paper, we develop a framework whereby the essential properties of these categories of coalgebras are captured in a purely axiomatic fashion. To this end, we introduce arboreal categories, which have an intrinsic process structure, allowing dynamic notions such as bisimulation and back-and-forth games, and resource notions such as number of rounds of a game, to be defined. These are related to extensional or "static" structures via arboreal covers, which are resource-indexed comonadic adjunctions. These ideas are developed in a general, axiomatic setting, and applied to relational structures, where the comonadic constructions for pebbling, Ehrenfeucht-Fra\"iss\'e and modal bisimulation games recently introduced by Abramsky et al. are recovered, showing that many of the fundamental notions of finite model theory and descriptive complexity arise from instances of arboreal covers.
August 10, 2023